MLL-rearranged leukemia depends on H3K79 methylation. Depletion of this transcriptionally-activating mark by DOT1L deletion or high concentrations of the inhibitor pinometostat downregulates HOXA9 and MEIS1, and consequently reduces leukemia survival. Yet some MLL-rearranged leukemias are inexplicably susceptible to low-dose pinometostat, far below concentrations that downregulate this canonical proliferation pathway. In this context, we define alternative proliferation pathways that more directly derive from H3K79me2 loss.
Next-generation sequencing allows researchers to efficiently determine the sequences of hundreds of millions of short DNA fragments from an experiment. To find the origins of those fragments, the corresponding sequences are aligned to the genome; these alignments can then be used in downstream analyses. However, this alignment process is complicated by the fact that the genome has many highly similar and repetitive sequences, making it difficult or impossible to unambiguously assign some sequences to a single genomic location. To address this problem, we have developed SmartMap, which serves to process and appropriately weight the alignments of reads that map to more than one genomic location. This enables us to examine many genomic regions that were previously “invisible” to analysis and helps us draw new insights into the regulation and function of repetitive elements of the genome.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has served as the central method for the study of histone modifications for the past decade. Here we provide a detailed protocol for internally calibrated ChIP (ICeChIP), a method we recently developed to resolve these problems by spike-in of defined nucleosomal standards within a ChIP procedure.
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important genomic regulators often studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), whereby their locations and relative abundance are inferred by antibody capture of nucleosomes and associated DNA. Here, we use histone peptide arrays and internally calibrated ChIP (ICeChIP) to characterize 52 commercial antibodies purported to distinguish the H3K4 methylforms (me1, me2, and me3, with each ascribed distinct biological functions).
We recently described a new class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are distinguished by especially tight chromatin association and whose presence is strongly correlated to expression of nearby genes. Here, we examine the cis-enhancer mechanism of this class of chromatin-enriched RNA (cheRNA) across multiple human cell lines. Our results suggest that multiple cheRNAs activate proximal lineage-specific gene transcription.